Using SSH is today an easy way to access a remote host. There are several ways to use it, from using default context with user/password credentials to different directions.
A system architecture is well designed when adapted to the structure it belongs to. A production environment can be a simple server, or you can use a load balancer, material or physical, and a few servers in a cluster on cutting-edge technology.
As an architect, the purpose is often to build a system adapted to needs at a lower cost as possible. That’s a business view. An architect has to keep in mind that his architecture must adapt to the corporate structure: you don’t necessarily need to be protected, such as a banking infrastructure, if you’re a young developer modding your first Minecraft server.
However, you can try to protect yourself with different manners. Today, the topic is about using a bastion server to protect from accessing your systems.
How does it work?
This pattern aims to access Linux instances through a unique entrance door. You can have public known servers to expose services and - as an example - an SSH server listening to this only way: the bastion server.
Setting up & configuration
In the future, we admit that you use only SSH keys as a connect method. SSH keys are made for a better world, simplified governance, and other nice stuff, so think about it twice, and please, use it!
- bastion server: bastion, the entrance door
- a Linux server: web, hosting an Apache server
We aim to connect to a remote server, web, by jumping on the bastion server. We can do one of the following methods.
Dummy connection to bastion
You can first connect to bastion:
you@localhost$ ssh user@bastion
user@bastion$ ssh user@web
But there are problems with this solution. For governance and security issues, you may want to use SSH keys. This way to do present a leak of security: you’ll have to leave an SSH key allowed to connect to web in the user’s folder on bastion. And possibly on multiple web servers.
Your entrance door may suffer from attacks - and no, security through obscurity isn’t a perfect practice. Leaving a private key on an exposed server is a bad practice and mustn’t be done.
A better way: connection to bastion by keeping agent configuration
Using the credentials present on your localhost computer is also a possibility. If you have the same private key to access to web, you can use an SSH option to forward the authentification agent:
you@localhost$ ssh -A user@bastion user@bastion$ ssh user@web
You just grant access on bastion of your SSH key. That’s better, but that’s not what we want. What we do want is to connect to web and only to web.
The excellent way: connecting through bastion
If your SSH key is in an SSH agent, you can then use:
you@localhost$ ssh -J user@bastion user@web
With this configuration, you use bastion to Jump into web. We just connect to bastion using an SSH connection and create a TCP forwarding from bastion to achieve the connection to web.
In this case, your key is conserved on your localhost, and the context of your SSH connection is preserved until the last destination of your connection.
What about automation?
Writing a jumping command can be tedious, especially if you have multiple bastions servers.
you@localhost$ ssh -J user@bastion1,user@bastion2,user@bastion3 user@web
It is better to define it in a separate configuration file. This configuration file (by default:
~/.ssh/config) is an excellent way to order your path. And set relevant configurations, such as an IP or a host with
Hostname directive, a special
IdentityFile if, like me, you prefer using a different one for each server you connect, and the
User, which can change from a server to another.
Note: the host aliasing can be done here, but impacts only SSH client, such as in /etc/hosts for sharing configuration and/or other software
Host bastion Hostname 184.108.40.206 IdentityFile ~/.ssh/bastion User user Host web ProxyJump bastion Hostname 10.10.1.51 IdentityFile ~/.ssh/web User user
You may notice that we can use subnet inaccessibles with a standard Internet connection but allowed when passing by a ProxyJump.
This allows you to simply connect to the web the most straightforward way as possible:
you@localhost$ ssh web
And that’s it.
Security is an everyday concern and must be adapted to each situation and not over-engineered. Your policies have to fit with the size of your architecture, your destination users, and the available wherewithals.
When designing an infrastructure, think about a fact: the level security is inversely proportional to the access ease. So KISS, and estimate well regarding the needs of your users or your business.